**From Whole Numbers to Rationals**

First, we start with whole numbers, writing them over 1 to make fractions. Then we learn what that bottom number 1 means and what the top number, or numerator, means.

**Comparing Two Fractions**

Now we compare two fractions when the fractions are fractions of the same whole and when they have the same numerator or the same denominator (or both).

**Comparing Using Equal Fractions**

Once you know how to make equal fractions, you can compare any two fractions, even those with different numerators and different denominators.

**Subtracting Like Fractions**

When two fractions have the same denominator, we can subtract them by subtracting their numerators and keeping the denominator the same.

**Add and Subtract Any Fractions**

To add or subtract any fractions, first check their denominators. If they are not the same, you can use equal fractions and then determine the sum or difference.